IMPORTANT HISTORICAL EVENTS IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER
- January 2, A.D. 1925: A Shaheedi Sacrifice Squad of Sikh settlers in Canada marched from Sri Akal Takhat to participate in the Jaito Morcha (agitation) at Jaito (A.D. 1925).
- January 3, (A.D. 1588 : Sri Darbar Sahib was founded. (A.D. 1588).
- January 4, 1982 : Gurbachan Singh, the chief of pseudo Nirankaris was acquitted by the Sessions Judge of Karnal of the charge of murder of thirteen Sikhs. (1982) Consequent upon it, the Sikhs lost faith in judiciary.
- January 5, A.D. 1924 : Morcha for possession of lands attached to Gurdwara Bhai Pheru (Lahore District) was launched in A.D. 1924.
- January 6 : Martyrdom of Sardar Satwant Singh and Sardar Kehar Singh the coaccused with S. Beant Singh who had gunned down Indira Gandhi, were hanged till death in 1989, throwing to winds all legal and moral norms.
- January 7 : 62 Members of the S.G.P.C. were arrested from the precincts of Sri Darbar Sahib (1924). All these members were sentenced to imprisonment under Section 120,121 (2) Indian Penal Code (Sedition) and Section 17 A and 17 B of Act of 1908 by Special order of the Governor of the Punjab.
- January 8 : Baba Ala Singh S/O of Baba Ram Singh was born at Phul in 1691 on this day. He was the founder of Patiala State, which included Barnala, Longowal, Sunam, Bathinda besides Patiala. He expired on August 22, 1765 at Patiala.
- January 11 : Maharajah Sher Singh and Amir Dost Mohammed Khan of Kabul met each other in A.D. 1843 and a treaty of friendship was signed between them.
- January 13 : The Battle of Chellianwala (in Gujrat district, now in Pakistan) was fought (1849 A.D.) between the Khalsa Army of the Lahore Darbar and the forces of East India Company. The Sikhs gained upper hand in the battle but they lost finally in the battle of Gujrat, which led to the annexation of the Sikh kingdom by the British in 1849 A.D.
- January 14 : (a) Battle of Mukatsar was fought between the Guru Gobind Singh's forces and those of the Wazir Khan Subedar Sirhind. The brunt of the attack was borne by forty men of the Majha who had deserted the Guru's ranks during the siege of Anandpur, but taunted by their own women who would not allow them enter their houses, they had come back to reinforce the Guru's small army. They all fell fighting but not before they had shown their mettle as the toughest fighters. When the Guru, at the close of the battle, came to know of the sacrifices of the Sikhs of Majha, he was deeply moved. He took out the paper on which they had written their disclaimer (Bedava) and tore it up as a sign of forgiveness. The Guru gave each of them the prestigious honorific of Mukta - Emancipated one. They are remembered in the daily prayer of the Sikhs as forty Muktas. (A.D. 1704).
- (b) Acute wrath among the Sikhs at the dismantling of the wall of historic Gurdwara Rakab Ganj by the British Government (A.D. 1914).
- (c) The Sikhs conquered Sirhind in 1764 where two younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh Ji had been bricked up alive. To give expression to their moral rage at the destruction and desecration of Sri Darbar Sahib by Ahmed Shah Abdali and also to establish Khalsa rule, they wrought havoc on Sirhind.
- January 16 : Birthday of Sri Guru Har Rai Ji (A.D. 1630).
- January 17 : (a) Jahan Khan, Ahmed Shah Abdali's Commander of the Afghan forces, attacked Amritsar in 1766. Dal Khalsa, under the command of Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, Hira Singh, Lehna Singh and Gajjan Singh routed the Afghans at the place now known as Putligarh then situated on the outskirts of Amritsar.
- (b) Through a notification of A.D. 1927, the government of Punjab accepted the name 'Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee' to be given to the Central Board of Management, which had been constituted as per Sikh Gurdwaras Act, 1925.
- (c) Shiromani Akal Dal came out with flying colours in its Morcha on this date in 1977
against the emergency clamped by Indira Gandhi in A.D. 1975.
- (d) Fifty Namdhari Sikhs were blasted by guns on the charge of tormenting sedition against the British government on the order of Cowan, the deputy commissioner of Ludhiana (A.D. 1872).
- January 18 : (a) Sixteen more Kookas (Namdhari Sikh s were blown off by the guns on the charge of tormenting sedition against the British.
- (b) Birthday of Bhai Himmat Singh. He was born this day in A.D. 1661 to Gulzari and Bibi Dhanno at Jagan Nath Pun in Orissa. He offered his head in response to the call of Guru Gobind Singh on 30th March, 1699 and was blessed with the honorific Pyara-the dearest one. He was administered Pahul by the Guru and then he, as one of the five Pyaras (beloved disciples), administered Pahul to Guru. He died fighting in 1704 in the battle of Chamkaur.
- (c) Maharajah Sher Singh became Maharajah (A.D. 1841). He was assassinated along with his son by Ajit Singh Sandhawalia on September 15, 1843.
- (d) Baba Ram Singh, the Chief of the Namdharis was deported to Rangoon in Burma in 1872 where he died on November 29, 1885.
- January 19 : (a)The keys of Tosha Khana Sri Harmandir Sahib Amritsar, which had been forcibly seized by Govt. in 1921, were returned to Baba Kharak Singh,President of S.G.P.C. wrapped in a piece of red cloth by a gazetted official of Punjab Government in A.D. 1922 right in the congregation being held in front of Sri Akal Takhat Sahib. The air became thick with shouts of Sat Sri Akal.
- (b) Martyrdom of Sardar Sewa Singh Thikriwala (A.D.1935) after a protracted fast.
- January 20 : (a) The judgement in the Babbar Akali case was announced this day in 1926, as a result of which five Babbar Akalis were ordered to be hanged till death, eleven were sentenced to life imprisonment and 38 to four years. The Babbar Akalis who numbered nearly ninety were great freedom fighters committed to high principles. They believed in violent struggle against the British to liberate their country from their stranglehold. They had resolved to kill fifth columnists among the freedom fighters, toadies and loyalists of the British.
- (b) Sher Singh, the son of Maharajah Ranjit Singh was coronated on this day in 1841 at the age of 34. He and his minor son Partap Singh, was killed on 15th September, 1843 by Sandhawalias, Ajit Singh and Lehna Singh. He was born in 1807 and his mother's name was Mehtab Kaur.
- January 22 : During Maharajah Ranjit Singh's reign, Mool Raj was an efficient and loyal governor of Multan. In 1848. John Lawrence, the British Resident of Lahore Darbar, wanted to dismiss him. To show his concern for the integrity of Lahore kingdom, he revolted against the British. He put up stout resistance garrisoning intelligently his fort of Multan but ultimately he was defeated on this day in A.D. 1849. As a result, Multan, like the rest of Punjab, came under the occupation of the British.
- January 24 : Maharajah Ripudaman Singh of Nabha passed away at Kadai-Kunal (1943).
- January 26 : (a) In 1929, All India Congress at its Lahore session had passed a resolution demanding complete independence for India. All through the Freedom Movement, the Sikhs remained in the forefront and made sacrifices unsurpassed by any other community in India.
- (b) In 1921, after a sustained struggle against the Mahants, the historical gurdwaras at Tarn Taran were brought under the. control of the Panth. In the process, Bhai Hakam Singh of village Wasau Kot and Hazara Singh of Aldin Pur were got murdered by the priests through their hench men.
- (c) Birthday of Baba Deep Singh, a great Sikh martyr (A.D. 1862).
- January 28 : (a) Sri Guru Nanak Dev in the course of his third odyssey arrived in Mecca in A.D. 1520, the Holy Central shrine of Islam. Here he convinced the Qazis that God is Omnipresent. His abode is not confined to Mecca alone. His life long companion and rebec player, Bhai Mardana, a Muslim by faith, was also with him.
- (b) On this day in 1846, the battle of Alliwal, Tehsil Jagraon, Distt. Ludhiana was fought between the forces of the British East India Company and the Khalsa Army in which the letter suffered heavy losses owing to the perfidious role of its own generals.
- January 31 : (a) The Management of Gurdwara Guru Ka Bagh was taken over from mahant Sunder Das and handed over to S.G.P.C. after a protracted agitation of the Akalis (A.D. 1922).
- (b) A great Sikh Savant Attar Singh (Sant) passed away (A.D.1927) at Sangrur.
- (a) The Great Holocaust : On this day, the Afghan invader Ahmed Shah Abdali attacked the Sikhs who were then resting in the jungle nearby Kup Roheera. The Sikhs determinedly battled first at Kup Roheera then at Bahmanian and lastly at village Gahar. Though the Sikhs suffered a colossal loss (thirty thousand deaths out of total of 50 thousand including Vaheer), yet they remained relentless and as high-spirited as ever. Ahmed Shah Abdali led a few more expeditions against the Sikhs; but at long last he was completely exhausted. As a result, the Sikhs succeeded in establishing Khalsa Rule, which lasted upto the middle of nineteenth century.
- (b) The famous Sikh shrine Panja Sahib at Hassan Abdal (Pakistan) was brought under the management of S.G.P.C. in A.D. 1921.It was here that Guru Nanak smashed the ego-centricity of Wali Qandhari. It is said that he rolled boulder from his abode at the top of the hillock down on the Guru, who was sitting at its foot, apparently to give vent to his spite which he harboured and nourished at the Guru's ever-swelling reputation. The Guru stopped the boulder with his palm. In the process, an impression of his hand got stamped on the rock out of which the water gushed out. The place thus began to be called 'Panja Sahib' as a reverence to Guru Nanak's visit. Every year on Baisakhi day, the Sikhs visit the place in large numbers to celebrate the occasion with fervour.
- February 9 First World Sikh Convention was convened in A.D. 1975. It resolved (i) to get gurdwaras exempted from Land Ceiling and (ii) from the levy of the income tax on gurdwaras, (iii) to keep intact the jurisdiction of S.G.P.C. as it existed earlier (iv) to force government to hold elections to Delhi Gurdwaras Parbandhak Committee as per the relevant Act. The central government by an ordinance (May 9,1975) agreed to implement all the four demands.
- February 10 (a) The brave Sikh general Sardar Sham Singh of Attariwala, symbolising the unflinching will of the Khalsa fell fighting in the battle of Sabhraon (A.D. 1846). The Sikhs suffered a heavy loss because of the treacherous role of their leaders.
- (b) Birth of Kanwar Naunihal Singh to Maharajah Kharak Singh and Maharani Mehtab Kaur. He fell victim to the intrigues of Dogras led by Raja Dhian Singh on November 5, 1840.
- February 13 Baba Darbara Singh Nirankari passed away in A.D.1870. He was a successor to Baba Dayal.
- February 15 The East India Company established cantonment in Ludhiana in (A.D.1809) in collusion with Bhag Singh, the ruler of Jind state and other Sikh Sardars of cis-Sutlej areas of the Panjab to meet any contingency from the side of Lahore Darbar.
- February 21 (a) The cruel and cold-blooded massacre of the Sikh devotees at Nankana Sahib-the birth place of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, took place in 1921 at the behest of wily and unscrupulous Mahant Narain Das who, unfortunately for the Sikhs, managed the affairs of the holy place at that time. A group of more than two hundred Sikh devotees had gone to make obeisance as well as to liberate the holy shrine from the control of the Mahant by non-violent and peaceful means. The Mahant caused this massacre through a few hired hoodlums. In his work, he also enjoyed the tacit support of the Punjab Government. Quite a large number of Sikhs were gunned down, many were slashed with axes and swords, while some were fastened to a Jand Tree nearby Janamasthan and burnt alive. The event, because of its horribleness, is known as the bloodiest event of the twentieth century. On the following day, the government handed over the keys of the Gurdwara to Sardar Harbans Singh Attari, the Vice President of S.G.P.C.
- (b) The last baffle of the second Anglo-Sikh War (A.D. 1849) was fought at Gujrat that
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resulted in the defeat of Sikh forces. Sher Singh and Chatter Singh, the Sikh generals, were deported by the victors and Punjab was annexed to British Indian Empire.
- (c) The agitation of Jaito took a serious turn when in 1924. Under the orders of British Administrator of Nabha State, the forces opened fire to prevent the march of the first sacrifice squad alongwith Sikh desires to their holy shrine Gangsar at Jaito. More than twenty one Sikhs fell under fire besides many wounded. More than seven hundred were arrested.
- February 27 Six Babbar Akalis were hanged to death in Lahore Central Jail in A.D. 1926.
- February 28 (a) Judgement of Second Babbar Akali case (A.D. 1925).
- (b) All India Congress Committee passed a resolution in 1924 condemning the killings
of Sikh devotees at Jaito and expressing sympathy for the valiant Akalis. (A.D. 1924). March 2 Guru Hargobind Sahib immersed in Eternal light (A.D. 1644)
- March 3 (a) Mahatma Gandhi arrived at Nankana Sahib in A.D. 1921 to make a first-hand-study
of the situation regarding the massacre of two hundred Akalis on the 20th February
- (b) Gurgaddi of Guru Har Rai Sahib (A.D. 1644)
- March 5 (a) After their surrender at the mud fortress of Gurdas Nangal, Banda Singh Bahadur and over seven hundred soldiers were taken to Delhi. From 5th March 1716 to 11th March 1716, all these prisoners of war, including Banda Singh Bahadur were put to death in batches of one hundred. With unflinching faith and remarkable equanimity, they faced death.
- (b) Khalsa College, Amritsar the premier educational institution of the Sikhs, was founded on this day in A.D. 1892.
- March 9 (a) Dal Khalsa forces attacked and captured Delhi and built gurdwaras including Sis Ganj and Rakab Ganj (A.D. 1787)
- March 11 The Dal Khalsa under the leadership of Jassa Singh Ahluwalia and other Misl Sardars including Baghel Singh entered Delhi, and made for the Red Fort. The Sikhs entered Diwan-i-Aam. In excitement Jassa Singh Ahluwalia was made to sit on the throne. (A.D. 1787)
- March 13 Sardar Udham Singh from Sunam (Punjab) fulfilled his vow by gunning down Michael O'Dwyer at a Public meeting at Caxton Hall in England. O'Dwyer had engineered the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. (A.D. 1940)
- March 14 (a) Akali Phula Singh, son of Ishar Singh, met his martyrdom at Tiri hillock in the battle of Jahagira near Naushehra on March 14,1923. He hailed from Shihan (District Patiala) He was born in 1818 B.K. (A.D. 1761). Baba Naina Singh, the founder of Shaheed Misl administered him the Pahul. Very early in his career, he took upon himself to serve the gurdwaras. Having served first at Sri Anandpur Sahib and then at Sri Damdama Sahib he chose to serve at Amritsar. The place wherefrom he conducted his activities is now known as the Akali Phula Singh's Burj (Akali Phula Singh Terrace). He actively assisted Maharajah Ranjit Singh in his battles of Multan and Peshawar et. al. His life came to a final close when he was shot at Tiri Hillock in the battle of Jahagira. A gurdwara named Shaheed Ganj was raised by the Maharajah on the bank of Lunda river, four miles away from Naushehra to perpetuate the memory of his martyrdom.
- 5 (a)The Khalsa forces defeated the Marathas in a battle near Dhaulpur (1766 A.D.).
- (b) The Patiala Forces under the command of Bibi Sahib Kaur defeated Maratha Army
in a battle fought near Ambala (A.D. 1794).
Occupation of the Punjab by the British East Indian Company (A.D. 1849) Maharajah Ranjit Singh after fighting a number of battles successfully entered Peshawar (A.D. 1823) for the first time.
Bhagat Singh and his associates were hanged on this day in 1931. They were cremated on the bank of the Sutlej river near Ferozepur secretly at the dead of night. Birth of Baba Ratta Ji (1830-1909). He headed the original Nirankari movement, after the death of his elder brother Darbara Singh. He was one of the three sons of Baba
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Dyal next to Darbara Singh in age. Under his stewardship, the movement escalated taking into its embrace quite a large number of non-Sikhs.
- March 26 Birthday of Raja Amar Singh of Patiala. He was a gentle man ruler and a dedicated savant of the people (A.D. 1774).
- March 27 Murder of Raja Suchet Singh (A.D. 1843). He was the brother of Raja Dhian Singh and Raja Gulab Singh and a high-ranking official of Lahore Darbar¬
- March 29 (a) The Dal Khalsa was organised into twelve mists (outfits) vide resolution adopted unanimously by the Dal Khalsa at Sri Akal Takhat in A.D. 1748.
- (b) The British Government deposed and exiled Maharajah Dalip Singh, the last ruler of Punjab and annexed the Sikh kingdom to British Empire (A.D. 1849).
- (c) Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji immersed in Eternal Light (1552).
- March 30 (a) It was on this day (A.D. 1699) that Guru Gobind Singh inaugurated the order of the Khalsa at Sri Anandpur Sahib and in token thereof administered Pahul to the five Beloveds. The Guru himself received Pahul from them and changed his name from Gobind Rai to Gobind Singh.
- (b) Erection of a fort called 'Ram Rauni' at Amritsar (which later on assumed the name of Ramgarh) was launched on this day in A.D. 1747 by the Sikhs to resist the Mughal onslaughts. Since Sardar Jassa Singh Ramgarhia supervised the construction, he began to be named as Ramgarhia.
- (c) Judgement in Lahore Conspiracy Case delivered (A.D. 1917 )
- (d) Guru Harkrishan Ji left for his heavenly abode in A.D. 1664.
- (e) Sri Guru Teg Bahadur was nominated to Gurgaddi (A.D. 1664) by Sri Guru Har Krishan.
- March 31 (a) After a passage of 50 years, Kar Sewa of the tank of Nectar started with full devotion and zeal (1973) at Amritsar. As it happened in the first Kar Sewa of 1923, the five Pyaras (the Beloved Ones) inaugurated it by digging sift with their golden Kassies and then putting it in their silver plates.
- (b) Advent of Guru Angad Dev (A.D. 1504).
- April 1 Advent of Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib (A.D. 1621).
- April 2 Ranjit Singh's forces were disbanded (A.D. 1 850) by East India Company nearly a year
after its occupation of the Punjab on March 29, 1850.
- April 3 (a) Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia alongwith Panj Pyaras laid the second foundation of
Sri Harmandir Sahib in A.D. 1764 (1821 B.K.). According to Giani Kirpal Singh, the
celebrated author of 'Sri Harmandir Sahib Da Sunehri Itihas', it was laid in October,
- (b) Guru Nanak Jahaz (Kama Gata Maru) sailed out from Hongkong to Canada in 1914 under the leadership of Baba Gurdit Singh. a celebrated Sikh patriot.
- April 8 Kapuri Morcha against the construction of Sutlej-Yamuna Link Canal was started by the Akali Dal in 1982.
- April 9 (a) Diwan Lakhpat Rai, the Dewan of the Governor of Lahore, in A.D. 1746 to avenge the death of his brother Jaspat Rai (who was killed in a skirmish with a Sikh outfit), issued orders to kill the Sikhs at sight. His campaign culminated in massacre of 1748 A.D., named as small holocaust in Sikh history. The great holocaust took place on February 5,1762.
- (b) During the Kumbh Mela (Hardwar) in 1796, the Bairagies snatched away the belongings of Udasi Sadhus. The Khalsa Dal intervened and compelled the Bairagies to return the same to the Udasis.
- April 10 At the request of a poor Brahmin of Kasur whose wife had been abducted by Usman Khan, the Chief of Kasur, the Sikhs who had assembled at the holy Akal Takhat, passed a resolution (Gurmata) to liberate the lady and restore her to her husband. They redeemed their pledge by accomplishing the task within a record time. (A.D. 1763)
- 1 (a) Ahmed Shah Abdali blew off Harmandir Sahib with his guns, desecrated and filled the sacred tank of Nectar with rubbish (A.D. 1762).
- 2 (a) Maharajah Mohinder Singh of Patiala passed away in A.D. 1876.
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(b) Professor Gurmukh Singh of Oriental College, Lahore and Giani Dit Singh editor 'Khalsa Akhbar' established Khalsa Diwan Lahore to propagate Sikh tenets (1885).
- April 13 (a) Sher-i-Punjab Maharajah Ranjit Singh held first Shahi Darbar in Lahore Fort and assumed the title of Maharajah in A.D. 1801.
- (b) Gurmata by 'Sarbat Khalsa to the effect that they would not allow Punjab to be the part of Afghan Empire. (A.D. 1746)
- (c) Baba Ram Singh started Namdhari movement in A.D. 1861.
- (d) In 1919, Jallianwala Bagh Bloody tragedy took place in which five hundred innocent Sikhs/Punjabis fell victim to the bullets of the British imperial government.
- (e) Thirteen Sikhs were killed by the Nirankaris headed by Baba Gurbachan Singh. Their only fault was that they dared to go to the gathering at Amritsar to request that they should not ridicule their Gurus by imitating them and their institutions. (A.D. 1978)
- (f) Guru Amar Das, the third Guru in succession to Guru Nanak, held religious festival at Goindwal for the first time (A.D. 1559) on this day.
- April 14 Khalsa College Council was organised in 1 892 A.D. at Amritsar.
- April 15 (a) Advent of Guru Nanak (A.D. 1469).
- (b) Advent of Guru Arjan Dev (A.D. 1563).
- April 16 (a) Invasion of Delhi by Khalsa Dal (A.D. 1780).
- (b) The passing away of Bhai Sahib Bhai Randhir Singh Ji (1961).He was a renowned
Sikh Savant and headed the Akhand Kirtani Jatha.
- April 17 Occupation of Paharganj, Delhi (1766) by Dal Khalsa forces.
- April 18 First Sikh Educational Conference organised by Chief Khalsa Diwan was held at
Gujranwala in A.D. 1908
- April 19 Maharajah Dalip Singh, the last ruler of Punjab was sent to England in A.D. 1854.
- April 20 The march of Khalsa forces towards Kashmir (A.D. 1816).
- April 21 Ghadar Party came into existence (A.D. 1913).
- April 24 Murder of Gurbachan Singh Nirankari at Delhi (1980) at the behest of whom 13
innocent Sikhs were killed at Amritsar on April 13,1978 and about a hundred injured. April 27
- (a) Jaito Morcha ended in victory (1925). In all fifteen Shahidi Jathas participated in this
- (b) First Lahore Conspiracy case was registered in 1915 against members of Ghadar Party, a revolutionary Indian Group formed in the USA by the Indians settled there the majority of whom were Sikhs. They were charged with waging war against the crown and to end the British rule in India.
- April 30 A mysterious aroma like blazing light circumambulated the Holy Guru Granth Sahib in Golden Temple and vanished instantly (A.D. 1877).
- May 1 Sardar Had Singh Nalwa, the famous Commander of Maharajah Ranjit Singh was fatally wounded in the battle of Jamraud on this day in 1837 and died the next day. He was born in 1781 at Gujranwala (now in Pakistan) to his parents Gurdial Singh and Dharam Kaur. Upon coming to age, he joined the army of Ranjit Singh and impressed him so much with his valour and wisdom that he appointed him as Subedar of Kashmir, Hazara and Peshawar one after another. The Pathans even these days are overawed by his name.
- May 2 Sikandar-Baldev Singh Pact (A..D. 1940)
- May 3 Birthday of Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia (1718).
- May 4 Birthday of Baba Ajit Singh Ji, the eldest son of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, born at Paonta Sahib in A.D. 1686. He was expert in the art of warfare. He was killed in the battle of Chamkaur in A.D. 1704.
- May 5 (a) Kanwar Naunihal Singh conquered Peshawar and planted the Kesri flag on the fort of Bala Hisar. The fort was renamed as Sumergarh (1834). (b) Birth of Sri Guru Amar Das at village Basarke in Amritsar District (A.D. 1479).
- May 6 (a) Gruesome Murder of Baba Bir Singh of Naurangabad, the most revered Sikh saint of his times. It was the handiwork of the treacherous Raja Hira Singh.
(b) Peshawar was annexed to Sikh Kingdom finally (A.D. 1834).
- May 10 (a) Master Tara Singh headed a Jatha of 100 Akali Satyagrahies set out for Peshawar in support of the non-cooperation movement launched by the Pathans in 1930 at the instance of the Congress, but was arrested at Lahore. The members of the Jatha were beaten by the police at the bridge over the river Jehlum and then imprisoned in the Jehlum Jail.
- (b) Panjabi Suba Zindabad Morcha launched (1955).
- May 11 Quin Centenary Birth Anniversary of Guru AmarDas Sahib was celebrated at Goindwal Sahib with devotion and gusto (1979).
- May 15 The Sikhs occupied Lahore (A.D. 1765).
- May 16 (a) Misl Bhangian, one of the twelve Sikh Misls was organised by Sardar Chhaju Singh of Panjwar, District Amritsar in A.D. 1748. Sardar Had Singh and Sardar Bhuma Singh, the celebrated leaders of the Misl, captured Lahore in 1765. Ambala, Ferozpur and some part of Amritsar were under the control of this Misl.
- (b) Maharani Jindan was sent to the fort of Benaras for confinement (A.D. 1848).
- May 17 Birthday of Baba Dayal, the founder of Nirankari Movement (A.D. 1783).
- May 19 On this day in 1919, after long agitation by the Sikhs in which hundreds went to jail, restrictions on the Kirpan, which is a sacred emblem of the Sikhs, were removed all over British India and Burma including Indian armed forces.
- May 20 Bhai Kahan Singh started writing of Gur Shabad Ratnakar Mahan Kosh (A.D. 1912).
- May 22 (a) Eleven Sikhs were gunned down at Paonta Sahib (Himachal Pradesh) by Mahant's henchmen (A.D. 1964).
- (b) Banda Singh Bahadur won victory in the battle of Chhappar Chheri (A.D. 1710). Wazir Khan, the Subedar of Sirhind was killed in this battles.
- May 23 Kama Gata Maru Jahaz (Guru Nanak Jahaz). In the beginning of the twentieth century, the Indians had to migrate to foreign lands in search of employment and good living. The Canadian government put unwarranted restrictions on the ingress of Sikhs Punjabis into Canada. The British ships particularly refused Punjabis to get aboard in order to reach Canada. Baba Gurdit Singh, a resident of the village Sarhali, who had business at Calcutta and Malaya et al hired a Japanese ship of the name of Kama Gata Maru. He changed its name to Guru Nanak Jahaz and having boarded 376 passenger sailed to the port of Vancouver (Canada). The passengers were not allowed to disembark and as a consequence it returnedto India (A.D. 1914).
- May 30 (a) Martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev : By the orders of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir, the fifth Guru, Guru Arjan Dev was tortured to death as per the law of Yasa (A.D. 1606). The Guru was much respected religious steward of the Sikhs who gave them the holy Guru Granth Sahib in (A.D. 1604). He got built Santokhsar in A.D. 1588; Sri Harmandir Sahib in 1589; Sarowar and the Darbar Sahib Tam Taran in 1590. The city of Kartarpur was built and populated in 1594. The Muslim bigots could not tolerate the spread of universal message of peace and brotherhood of mankind as preached by Sri Guru Arjan Dev ji. Sri Hargobind Sahib succeeded to Gurgaddi. (b) Bedi Kartar Singh whom Sri Akal Takht had declared Tankhahiya appeared before Sri Akal Takht Sahib and begged forgiveness (A.D. 1924).
- June 1 (a) Small Holocaust on this day in 1746: For about a month, the Sikhs fought against the Mughal forces under Dewan Lakhpat Rai in the swamps of Kahnuwan. Atleast 10,000 Sikhs were massacred by Lakhpat Rai under the order of Yahiya Khan, the Mughal governor of Punjab. Lakhpat Rai had taken a vow to avenge the death of his brother by annihilating the Sikhs. Yahiya Khan encouraged him in his resolve because he too considered them a threat to Mughal rule.
- (b) 'Akali', a daily newspaper in Punjabi, was started by the Sikh leaders of Shiromani Akali Dal and S.G.P.C. to propagate their stand among the people as also to counter the propaganda of the government (A.D. 1920).
Maharajah Ranjit Singh annexed the province of Multan to his kingdom after the
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conquest of Multan Fort in A.D. 1818.
- June 3 Indian Army invaded Sri Darbar Sahib in 1984. Indira Gandhi, the wily Prime Minister of India passed an order for this attack. Sri Akal Takht Sahib was demolished and desecrated in the process. The whole Sikh nation rose as a man to protest against this ghastly attack. Many offered arrests, seven Sikh Units of Indian, Army revolted and rushed to protect Harmandir. Quite a large number of Sikhs left government jobs to express their anguish. A large majority of the prestigious honorific such as Padam Bhushan et. al. were surrendered by their holders. Thousands of Sikhs were martyred in the holy precincts of Darbar Sahib. Indira Gandhi's order was unwarranted and hence she received retributive punishment on October 31, 1984.
- June 6 (a) First battle of Amritsar was fought by Guru Hargobind Sahib (A.D. 1628) against the Mughals.
- (b) Birth of Bhai Mohkam Singh, one of the five Sikh Beloveds of the Guru, at Dwarka in A.D. 1663. He was born to Tirath Chand (washerman) and Devi Bai. He met his martyrdom in the battle of Chamkaur in A.D. 1804.
- (c) The Sikh forces under Banda Singh Bahadur defeated the forces of Bahadur Shah, Delhi Emperor at Behrampur in A.D. 171 1.
- June 8 At Jajou (near Agra) the battle for the succession to the Delhi throne was fought between two sons, Tara Azam and Muazzam (Bahadur Shah) of Aurangzeb. Guru Gobind Singh ji helped Bahadur Shah. Tara Azam was struck with the gold-tipped arrow of Sri Guru Gobind Singh and lost his life. Bahadur Shah won victory (A.D. 1707).
- June 9 Baba Banda Singh Bahadur alongwith his infant son and a few selected followers was done to death mercilessly at Mehrauli, (Delhi) by the order of Emperor Farukh Siyyar in A.D. 1716.
- June 10 (a) Giani Kartar Singh, a veteran Akali leader, died at Patiala in 1974.
- (b) Pseudo Nirankari Gurbachan Singh was declared apostate vide the Hukamnama
issued by Akal Takhat (1978) and the Sikhs were ordained to completely boycott the
Nirankaries and shall have no matrimonial or social relations with
- June 12 Maharani Chand Kaur was killed (A.D. 1842).
- June 14 Birthday of Baba Fateh Singh, the youngest son of Guru Gobind Singh ji (A.D. 1698). He was bricked up alive at Sirhind on the order of Wazir Khan the Subedar of Sirhind. He was six years of age at that time.
- June 17 (a) Bhai Sahib Singh, one of the five Beloveds of Guru Gobind Singh was born on this day in A.D. 1662 at Bidar (Kamatak State) to his parents, Chaman and Sona Bai. In 1699 he was baptised by the great Guru on the day of creation of Khalsa. He was killed in the battle of Chamkaur in A.D. 1704. He had also taken an active part in the battle of Bhangani in A.D. 1688. Sri Guru Gobind Singh ji himself has referred to his role in his composition Bachittar Natak in its eighth chapter.
- (b) The Kar-Sewa of the sacred Tank of Nectar (Amrit Samovar) was performed with utmost humility and devotion (A.D. 1923). The Panj Pyaras were the first to put silt in their silver baskets with the help of their golden spades. They were enthusiastically followed by the Sikhs and non-Sikhs including Muslims and Hindus on a large scale. The Kar-Sewa continued upto 8th July, 1923
- June 19 (a) Birthday of Sri Guru Hargobind Sahib A.D. 1595.
- (b) Five Ghadri Babas were hanged till death (A.D. 1919).
- (c) S.G.P.C. received Legislative sanction (1925). It was for the first time that women through this Act were granted right to vote.
- June 24 Birth of Master Tara Singh (A.D. 1881).
- June 28 Maharajah Ranjit Singh passed away (A.D. 1839) having reigned for forty years during which period the Hindus and the Sikhs all were happy. He established his control over Lahore in 1799 and then step by step he brought the territory around Lahore under his hegemony. After this, he captured Multan, Kashmir and Kangra. In this way, he established Khalsa Raj comprising the whole of Punjab, territories of Multan, Kashmir,
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Kangra besides the trans-Attock area upto Jamraud. As long as he lived, none dared look askance on the Khalsa Raj.
- June 29 Guru Hargobind Sahib was coronated on this day (Haarh Sudi Daswin Samvat 1763). He wore the two swords of Miri and Piri.
- June 30 Raja Karam Singh became Maharajah of Patiala State (1813).
- July 1 Martyrdom of Bhai Taru Singh ji (1745). His scalp was scrapped from his head but Bhai Taru Singh rejoiced that the hair of his head were still intact.
- July 4 Conquest of Kashmir by Maharajah Ranjit Singh (A.D. 1819).
- July 6 Nehru assured the Sikhs in Calcutta session of Congress Working Committee (1946) that requisite steps will be taken to create a region in which Sikhs could also enjoy thefruits of freedom.
- July 7 (a) Birthday of Sri Guru Harkrishan Ji (A.D. 1656)
- (b) Sher-i-Punjab Maharajah Ranjit Singh captured Lahore. His mother-in-law Sada Kaur assisted him (1799).
- (c) After a protracted struggle of five years for the emancipation of gurdwaras from the strangle-hold of Mahants in which the Sikhs faced bullets, withstood blows of Lathies of the police, apart from courting arrests on a large scale, Sikh Gurdwaras Legislation was enacted according to which the apex Panthic organization S.G.P.C. assumed the control of gurdwaras (1925).
- July 9 (a) The foundation stone of Sri Akal Takhat Sahib was laid by Sri Guru Hargobind Sahib ji (A.D. 1606). This throne of the Immortal was built by the Guru himself assisted by Baba Budha and Bhai Gurdas, no one else even any mason was allowed to participate in its construction (A.D. 1606).
- (b) Maharajah Ripudaman Singh, the ruler of Nabha State, was forced by the British government of India to abdicate in favour of his son, for his nationalist views and sympathies. He, was deported to Dehradun and kept under house-arrest by the British government. The Sikhs held Dewans, Akhand Paths and offered prayers to protest which ultimately triggered off the famous Jaito Morcha (agitation) in 1923.
- July 12 Ban on raising Punjabi Suba slogan was lifted (A.D. 1955).
- July 17 Passing away of Sardar Teja Singh Samundri (1926) on this day after long imprisonment in Lahore Fort. The S.G.P.C. built Teja Singh Samundri Hall to perpetuate the memory of this beloved leader. His last rites were performed on 18th July.
- July. 21 The police and Army of Nabha State lifted the siege of Gurdwara Gangsar, Jaito on July 21, 1925, thereby conceding freedom to Gurdwara Gangsar and Tibbi Sahib. The Nabha State authorities also proclaimed the release of Akali prisoners. Special Jatha of a few hundred valiant Akali Satyagrahies resumed Akhand Path of Sri Guru Granth Sahib (A.D. 1925).
- July 23 Baba Atal Rai, son of Sri Hargobind ji left for his heavenly abode in A.D. 1627. Later on Highest Tower was erected in his memory in one comer of Sri Hanmandir Complex at Amritsar. To express their reverence to his bountiful nature, people call him 'Name Baba Atal and get food instantly'. He was born in A.D. 1619 and his mother was Maha Devi.
- July 24 Baba Gurdit Singh leader of Kama Gata Maru passed away (1954).
- July 27 (a) Birthday of Baba Zorawar Singh, the son of Guru Gobind Singh. He was born at Anandpur in 1694. His mother was most revered Jito. On the order of Wazir Khan, the Subedar of the Sarkar of Sirhind, he was bricked up alive to death. On the place where this gruesome act was committed stands a beautiful gurdwara known as Fatehgarh Sahib and on the spot where his last rites were performed is situated gurdwara Jyoti Sarup.
- (b) After the success of the Akalis in Jaito Morcha in Nabha State, the Akali prisoners began to be released from jails (1925).
- July 28 The Governor of the Punjab gave his assent to the Sikh Gurdwaras Act (1925).
- Jury 30 Sardar Udham Singh of Sunam (Distt. Sangrur) was hanged to death in London (A.D. 1940) for killing Michael O'Dwyer.
August 1 Maharani Jindan was imprisoned in Sheikhupura fort wherefrom she was sent to
- Ferozepur and then to Benaras Jail. After a strong struggle she succeeded to join her son, Maharajah Dalip Singh in England. She passed away in England this day in A.D. 1863 in Abingdon House, Kensington. She was kept in unconsecrated vault in Kensel Green Cemetery. Her remains later were removed to India by Maharaja Dalip Singh and flown into the Godavri river at Nasik.
- August 6 S.G.P.C. (non-statutory) passed the resolution to launch Nabha agitation (A.D. 1923)
- August 7 Sikh Gurdwaras Act published in Punjab government Gazette, 1925.
- August 8 Morcha Guru Ka Bagh : A peaceful Morcha (agitation) was started in 1922 to emancipate the gurdwara from the stranglehold of Mahant, Sunder Das. This Morcha was one of the links in Akali agitation of 1920-25. The British colonial government extended its support to the Mahant in his design and did not hesitate to order the police to beat them mercilessly with their Lathies. The peaceful demeanour of the Sikhs against severe provocation evoked admiration all over the world. From the 13th September to 17th November, the Sikhs continued to court arrests. Ultimately, the government relented. The demands of the agitation were conceded and the Morcha was withdrawn on November 17,1922. In this Morcha 5606 arrests of the Sikhs were made. More than one and a half thousand Sikhs received injuries and over a dozen Sikhs were killed.
- August 10 General A.S. Vaidya, the erstwhile chief of the Indian Army who had ordered the army to attack and defile the holiest shrines at Amritsar and elsewhere in Punjab, was gunned down after his retirement by two young Sikhs, Bhai Harjinder Singh Jinda and Bhai Sukhdev Singh Sukha. They avenged the desecration of the holy shrines. On this day in 1992, they achieved martyrdom.
- August 11 Sain Mian Mir passed away at Lahore (A.D.1635). He was buried at Hashimpur.
- August 15 India was divided into two independent sovereign states - India and Pakistan. The Sikhs opted for India. It is a sheer travesty of circumstances that they have not been given the status they were promised and they are still engaged in the struggle for their rights.
- August 16 The Holy Granth Sahib was ceremoniously installed in Sri Harimandir Sahib, Amritsar for the first time in A.D. 1604.
- August 26 (a) Bhai Daya Singh was born to his parents, Bhai Sudha and Bibi Dayali in 1669. On the Vaisakhi of 1699, he was the first to offer his head in response to the call of Guru Gobind Singh. He, by receiving Pahul from the Guru, became Singh. He expired in A.D. 1708 (1765 BK) in Abchal Nagar, Nanded, on the bank of the river Godavri. His name is uttered first among the five Beloveds of the Guru (Panj Pyaras). (b) S.G.P.C. decided to launch morcha for liberating gurdwara at Daska in district Sialkot (Now in Pakistan) in A.D. 1931.
- August 28 (a) The newspaper 'Nation' was purchased by Shiromani Akal Dal to project and protect Sikh interests (A.D. 1923).
- (b) A resolution of self-determination was passed in 1973 at Anandpur Sahib. That
resolution is now called 'Anandpur Sahib Resolution'.
- August 30 Gurgaddi Day (Assumption as a Guru) of Sri Guru Ram Das Ji (A.D. 1574).
- August 31 (b) Gurgaddi Day Sri Guru Arjan Dev ji in A.D. 158 1.
- September 1 (a) S.G.P.C. sent a special Jatha of 25 members to start Akhand Path at Gurdwara
Gangsar Jaito (A.D. 1923).
- (b) Guru Ram Das left for his heavenly abode (A.D. 1581). (c) Guru Amar Das left for Heavenly abode (A. D. 1574).
- September 2 Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya, arrived at Amritsar to witness the brutal lathi charge of the police on the non-violent Akali Satyagrahies at Guru Ka Bagh (A.D. 1922).
- September 3 (a) Madho Das was baptised by Guru Gobind Singh and given the name of Banda Singh (A.D. 1708).
- (b) The police beat Bhagat Singh, his two sons Tara Singh and Asa Singh while they
were toiling in their fields in their village Tera Khurd on September 3, 1922 on suspicion of their having sympathy for Guru Ka Bagh Morcha. Unable to withstand severe injuries, Bhagat Singh died on September 4 and Tara Singh expired on September 6, 1922.
- September 4 (a) First meeting of the elected members of the statutory S.G.P.C. was held in Town Hall, Amritsar in 1926.
- (b) Birth of Maharajah Dalip Singh, the youngest son of Maharajah Ranjit Singh and Rani Jind Kaur (1838).
- September 5 Sardar Pntpal Singh suffered 100 lathi blows of the police dauntlessly, heroically and intrepidly at Guru Ka Bagh (A.D. 1922).
- September 6 Giani Dit Singh, one of the chief architects of Singh Sabha Movement and an erudite scholar passed away in 1901. He was born in A.D. 1850 and hailed from village Nandpur Kalaur (District Patiala). To begin with, he was Gulab Dasia, but then he, under the influence of Jawahar Singh Kapur and Prof. Gurmukh Singh, embraced Sikh religion. He received Pahul and joined Singh Sabha movement. He wrote over two dozens of books. So brilliant he was that even Swamy Daya Nand had to accept his superiority.
- September 7 Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji left for his heavenly abode (A.D. 1539).
- September 10 Sardar Karam Singh, a renowned Sikh historian, passed away (A.D.1930).
September 12 The Saragarhi episode (1897). The picket continued to be held by the Sikh soldiers till
their last breath.
- September 13 (a) Due to Rev. C.F. Andrew's efforts, the beating of the Sikhs Sacrifice squads as well as their arrests stopped. It was he who uttered after witnessing brutality and inhumanity at Guru Ka Bagh that he saw hundreds of Christs suffering cross daily.
- (b) Orders declaring S.G.P.C. and Shiromani Akali Dal as unlawful bodies were withdrawn by the Punjab government in 1926.
- (c) Master Tara Singh led first Shaheedi Jatha of 100 Akalis in the Daska Morcha in 1931.
September 14 (a) Nawab Zabita Khan Ruhela was baptised and named Dharam Singh (1777) as he was much impressed by the character of the Khalsa. (b) Raja Sher Singh Attari declared war against British Rule in Punjab 1848. He was son of Chatter Singh. His sister was engaged to Maharajah Dalip Singh.
- September 15 (a) Maharajah Sher Singh, his son Kanwar Partap Singh and Raja Dhian Singh Dogra were murdered by Sandhanwalias in A.D. 1843.
- (b) Baba Budha Ji passed away in A.D. 1631. His pyre was lit by Guru Hargobind Singh Ji.
- September 17 The working committee of Indian National Congress set up an enquiry committee to submit report regarding affairs pertaining to the Guru Ka Bagh Morcha (A.D. 1922).
September 18 (a) Dalip Singh was installed as Maharajah of Punjab in A.D. 1843.
- (b) The battle of Bhangani (near Paonta) was fought between the armies of Guru Gobind Singh and those of the Hill Rajas. The Sikhs came out victorious. In this battle Pir Budhu Shah of Sadhaura alongwith his sons and his seven hundred disciples took part.
- September 20 Raja Hira Singh Dogra murdered Ajit Singh Sandhawalia and Lehna Singh Sandhawalia to avenge his father's death (A.D. 1843).
- September 21 (a) Raja Gulab Singh Dogra got Jawahar Singh, brother of Rani And Kaur, killed in 1845 through Mian Prithi Singh Dogra.
- (b) During Punjabi Suba Morcha Kaka Inderjit Singh was killed and then thrown into a well.
- September 23 Bhai Gurdas expired on this day (A.D. 1637). He was a great Sikh Savant totally dedicated to the cause of Sikhism. He was an erudite scholar having proficiency in Braj, Persian, Punjabi, Hindi and Arabic. His composed 39 Vars (Ballads in heroic metre) in Punjabi were regarded by Sri Guru Arjan Dev as key to the understanding of Sri Guru Granth Sahib. He got the privilege to write Sri Guru Granth Sahib at the dictation of Sri
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Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The Sikhs looked upon him with deep reverence. On the eve of his death he expressed his desire to Sri Guru Hargobind Sahib that none should raise any memorial at the place of his cremation.
- September 24 (a) Birthday of Sri Guru Ram Das Ji (A.D. 1534).
- (b) Birth of Baba Sri Chand. He was born to Sri Guru Nanak Dev and Sulakhani in September 1494 (Bhadon Sudi 9, 1551 BK). Himself a great ascetic, he organised Udasi sect. He expired in A.D. 1612 (15 Assu, 1669 BK).
- September 26 Ten Sikhs were massacred by fake Nirankaris at Kanpur (A.D. 1978)
- September 27 Sahibzada Jujhar Singh son of Guru Gobind Singh was born this day in 1690. He met his martyrdom while fighting heroically in the battle of Chamkaur on Poh 8, 1761 B.K. (A.D. 1704). The court poet Sainapat writes:- "When Ajit saw odds tuning against him; he pierced through the enemy's forces with an arrow in his hand. When odds turned stiffer, Jujhar too turned bolder. Shooting and killing, he leapt into the enemy ranks."
- October 2 The first general meeting of elected members of S.G.P.C. was held to elect its office bearers. It also approved its name to be S.G.P.C. through a resolution adopted unanimously in 1926.
- October 6 (a) Guru Har Rai's immersion in Eternal Light (1661).
- (b) Gurgaddi Day (Assumption as Guru) Sri Guru Har Krishan Ji (A.D. 1661).
- October 7 Guru Gobind Singh left for Heavenly abode (A.D. 1708)
- October 9 The murder of Sardar Chait Singh Bajwa (1839) inside the Lahore Fort barely three months after the demise of Ranjit Singh by Dogra brothers. It was beginning of a long drawn tragedy of intrigues and murders of the royal Princes and high officials. Chait Singh was the close confident and chief advisor of Maharajah Kharak Singh.
- October 11 The combined forces of Sikh Misis attacked Gangetic Doab to punish the Muslim Nawabs for their atrocities on their people ( A.D. 1780).
- October 12 Sri Akal Takhat came under the control of S.G.P.C.(A.D. 1920).
- October 13 S.G.P.C. and Shiromani Akali Dal were declared unlawful bodies in 1923.
- October 15 After the death of Zakariya Khan, Dal Khalsa was organised to counteract the onslaughts of the Mughals and of the Afghans. It was divided into 25 bands.
- October 22 (a) Death of Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia (A.D.1783). He was a great general of the Khalsa forces during the eighteenth century and out of veneration for his heroic deeds and qualities of leadership, he was called 'Sultan-ul-Qaum' (King of the Nation). He was the head of Ahluwalia Misl and later founded the Kapurthala State. He issued a coin with the name of the Guru in A.D. 1761.
- (b) Maharajah Dalip Singh, the last ruler of the Punjab in Ranjit Singh's line breathed his last in France in 1893 in a hotel, far away from his motherland.
- October 23 Birth of Baba Budha Ji : He was born to Bhai Sugha and Bibi Gauran in A.D. 1506 at Kathu Nangal (Amritsar district). At a very early age, Providence brought him in touch with Sri Guru Nanak Dev and instantly he became a devotee of his and dedicated his life to Guru's mission. He had the privilege of enjoying the company and blessings of the first six Gurus. He was always called upon to coronatethe Gurus suceeding Sri Guru Nanak. He was bestowed upon the honour of being the first head priest of the Holy Harmandir Sahib after installation of the Holy Granth Sahib there. His original name was Bura, later called 'Budha' (the Awakened one). He breathed his last in A.D. 1631.(14 Maghar, 1688 BK).
- October 24 Khalsa Dal attacked Anup Shehar (Uttar Pradesh) and made the British Commander Mr. Stuart prisoner in A.D. 178 1.
- October 25 (a) Bhai Dhanna Singh Behbalpuri, Babbar Akali revolutionary, died fighting with the police (A.D. 1923).
- (b) Dewali celebrations at Amritsar to welcome Sri Guru Hargobind Sahib, who after being released from the Fort of Gwalior and successfully prevailing upon Jahangir to set at liberty the Rajas of Shivalik states in the Punjab, reached there. Later on, a custom got established and every year a big congregation began to be held on this day. Bhai
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Mani Singh was martyred by Zakariya Khan, the Mughal Governor of Punjab, because he arranged to celebrate the Dewali Day in A.D. 1837.
- October 26 Fourth centenary of the Foundation of the city of Amritsar was celebrated (1977).
- October 27 (a) Birth of Baba Banda Singh Bahadur (A.D. 1670). He was born in a Rajput family in Kashmir (Rajouri). His father was Raghu Dev. His earlier name was Lakhshman Dev. A hunting incident tuned the brave Rajput into an ascetic. Under the influence of Vaishnavism he left his home and martial traditions of his family and also assumed a new name Madho Das. After wandering far and wide, he camped at Nanded (Maharashtra) where he met Guru Gobind Singh (A.D.1708), who transformed him and set him in the tradition of valour of the Khalsa. He was sent to Punjab along with five trusted sikhs by the Guru to gather the scattered Khalsa forces and put an end to the reign of terror and cruelty. From A.D. 1710 to A.D. 1716, he gave crushing defeats to many Mughal Faujdars. This led to the gradual decline and fall of the Mughal empire. After receiving Pahul from Guru Gobind Singh, his name was changed to Banda Singh.
- (b) Sardar Darshan Singh Pheruman, after an historic fast of 70 days for getting Chandigarh for Punjab, died in 1969.
- (c) Fateh Singh breathed his last (A.D. 1972).
- October 30 During the struggle for restoring the Sikh gurdwaras to Khalsa Panth, Bhai Karam Singh and Bhai Partap Singh in order to stop the run-through train at Hassan Adbal to feed the Akali agitators, lay over the railway track and were run over. These Akali Agitators were being taken as prisoners to Attock Jail. The train had to stop and the agitators were served meals. It is a unique example of sacrifice for the sake of faith in the twentieth century.
- October 31 On this day A.D. 1984, Sardar Beant Singh gunned down Indira Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India to avenge the destruction of Sri Akal Takhat Sahib and defiling Holy Harimandir and the holy sarovar and for burning rare records and buildings of the complex. Indian Army was sent by her to attack the holy complex. Beant Singh was shot dead on the spot. For the Sikh community, he was a great martyr as he laid down his life for a great and just cause.
- November 1 A newspaper 'Ghadar' by Ghadar party, was brought out in America (A.D. 1916).
- (b) Sikh Gurdwaras Act of 1925 implemented (1926).
- (c) Punjabi Suba Day : Punjabi Suba came into existence in 1966. November 2 (a) Birthday of Maharajah Ranjit Singh in A.D. 1780.
- November 3 Birth of Bhai Dharam Singh (A.D. 1668). He was a dedicated Sikh of Guru Gobind Singh who stood up at the second call to offer his head to be chopped off by the Guru. He remained in the company of his great Master when he went to Nanded. There he breathed his last in A.D. 1708. His parents were Sant Ram and Bibi Sabho, who lived at Hastnapur. For his supreme sacrifice, he was given the honorofic of Pyara (Dear one).
- November 4 First Sikh Missionary School (Khalsa Parcharak Vidyala) was established at Tarn Taran in 1908 to train Sikh missionaries.
- November 5 Maharajah Kharak Singh, the eldest son of Maharajah Ranjit Singh and father of Kanwar Naunihal Singh died of slow-poisoning - the handiwork of his enemies.
- November 8 'Khalsa Samachar' was launched by Bhai Vir Singh to project Sikh religion in its true perspective (A.D. 1899).
- November 11 Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Guru of the Sikhs, was beheaded in the direct gaze of the people at Chandni Chowk A.D. 1675. He laid down his life to uphold dignity of people, their freedom of worship and faith and personal liberty. By his sacrifice the two symbols of the Hindus (tilak & janeoo) were saved, and the conversion to Islam was also stopped. On the site where the Guru was martyred stands Gurdwara Sisganj to highlight the stand of the Guru.
- November 13 Maharajah Narinder Singh of Patiala passed away (A.D.1862). He worked for the development of Punjabi.
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- November 14 Sardar Kartar Singh of Sarabha was hanged to death (A.D.1915).
- November 16 S.G.P.C. was formed to manage Sikh Shrines (A.D.1920) as unanimously decided in the gathering of leading Sikhs at Akal Takhat. Baba Kharak Singh was its first
- November 17 Victory in the agitation of Guru Ka Bagh was won (A.D. 1922).
- November 20 Conquest of Peshawar (1818) by Maharajah Ranjit Singh but it was not annexed to Lahore kingdom.
- November 21 Master Tara Singh expired (A.D. 1967).
- November 22 Anglo-Sikh war was fought at Ram Nagar (district Gujranwala) in 1848.
- November 23 Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha, a great Sikh scholar and a celebrated author of Guru Shabad Ratnakar Mahan Kosh and various other standard works on Sikh religion and Sikh
theology, passed away in 1938 at Nabha.
- November 26 Baba Banda Singh Bahadur conquered Samana Town in A.D. 1709.
November 30 Passing away of Sant Chanan Singh, the president of S.G.P.C. (A.D. 1972).
- December 2 Anglo-Sikh war was fought at Sadullapur (Gujranwala) in A.D. 1848.
- December 5 Birthday of Bhai Vir Singh, a great propounder and expounder of Sikh faith (A.D. 1873).
- December 6 Khalsa Dal attacked Ruhel Khand (Uttar Pradesh) in A.D. 1778.
- December 7 Tercentenary martyrdom day of Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was celebrated in 1975 throughout the world. A huge procession traversed the Shahidi Marg - route followed by
Guru Tegh Bahadur while he went to Delhi to make supreme sacrifice.
- December 14 Shiromani Akali Dal was organised at Sri Akal Takhat this day in 1920 to emancipate gurdwaras from the control of Mahants. This organization launched Gurdwaras Reform
Movement and after a long drawn-out struggle, all the historical gurdwaras in the
undivided Punjab came under Panthic control. Always, important role has been played
by this organization in the social, political and religious life of the Sikhs as well as of the
- December 16 Treaty of Bhairowal signed (A.D. 1846) between the East India Company and the minor Maharajah Dalip Singh, the sovereign of Punjab according to which the real control passed into the hands of the British.
- December 20 Gurdwara Panja Sahib management was brought under the control of the Sikhs in A.D.1920.
- December 21 (a) The fierce battle at Ferozshah (A.D. 1845) was fought. This battle is also known as the battle of Sutlej.
- (b) Raja Hira Singh Dogra and Pandit Jallah killed by Lahore army in 1844. December 22
- (a) Birthday of Guru Gobind Singh Ji (A.D. 1666).
- (b) Seige of Chamkaur Sahib by the Mughal forces (A.D. 1704). Sri Guru Gobind Singh with only 40 of his followers and his two sons gave a heroic fight. Most of them
including three of Panj Pyaras and two elder sons, Baba Ajit Singh and Baba Jujhar Singh, fell fighting bravely. Now Gurdwara Chamkaur Sahib stands on this place to the memory of the event.
- December 26 Sirhind episode, Fatehgarh Sahib: Wazir Khan persuaded the two minor sons (of 9 and 6 years age) to embrace Islam and when they did not respond affirmatively, he got them executed by bricking them up alive in the fort wall. The site where they were martyred is now marked by the gurdwara called 'Fatehgarh Sahib' and on the place where the dead bodies were cremated stands Gurdwara Joti Sarup, 1.5 Km. South-East of Sri Fatehgarh Sahib.
- Source: Dhram Parchar Committee, S. G. P. C., Sri Amritsar. All dates correspond to 1994 calendar year.
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